Future Missions : near - Earth Asteroids * Lagrange points * The Moon * The Red Planet Mars * Deep Space destinations

THE ORION PROJECT
Exploration Flight Test 1 planned for 2014 Which will be Launched By The SLS or TheSpace Launch System

 

 

 

SUMMUM BONUM

 

Summum bonum is a Latin expression meaning "the highest good" and is used in philosophy, particularly in medieval philosophy and in Kantianism, to describe the ultimate importance, the singular and most ultimate end which human beings ought to pursue. The summum bonum is generally thought of as being an end in itself, and at the same time containing all other goods.

In Christian philosophy, the highest good is usually defined as the life of the righteous, the life led in Communion with God and according to God's precepts.

The concept, as well as the philosophical and theological consequences drawn from the purported existence of a more or less clearly defined summum bonum, could be traced back to the earliest forms of monotheism: for instance, Zoroastrianism and Judaism[citation needed]. In the Western world, the concept was introduced by the neoplatonic philosophers[citation needed], and described as a feature of the Christian God by Saint Augustine in De natura boni (On the Nature of Good, written circa 399).

 

S U M M U M BONUM AND J U D G E M E N T S

Judgments on the highest good have generally fallen into four categories:

 

U T I L I T A R I A N I S M

Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes utility, specifically defined as maximizing happiness and reducing suffering. Classic utilitarianism, as advocated by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, is hedonistic. It is now generally taken to be a form of consequentialism, although when Anscombe first introduced that term it was to distinguish between "old-fashioned Utilitarianism" and consequentialism.[ According to utilitarianism the moral worth of an action is determined only by its resulting outcome although there is debate over how much consideration should be given to actual consequences, foreseen consequences and intended consequences. Two influential contributors to this theory are Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. In A Fragment on Government Bentham says ‘it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong’ and describes this as a fundamental axiom. In An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation he talks of ‘the principle of utility’ but later prefers “the greatest happiness principle."

Utilitarianism can be characterized as a quantitative and reductionist approach to ethics. It is a type of naturalism.It can be contrasted with deontological ethics, which does not regard the consequences of an act as a determinant of its moral worth; virtue ethics, which primarily focuses on acts and habits leading to happiness; pragmatic ethics; as well as with ethical egoism and other varieties of consequentialism.

 

I N T R I N S I C VALUE ( ETHICS )

Intrinsic value is an ethical and philosophic property. It is the ethical or philosophic value that an object has "in itself" or "for its own sake", as an intrinsic property. An object with intrinsic value may be regarded as an end or (in Kantian terminologyend-in-itself.

It is contrasted with instrumental value (or extrinsic value), the value of which depends on how much it generates intrinsic value. For an eudaemonist, happiness has intrinsic value, while having a family may not have intrinsic value, yet be instrumental, since it generates happiness. Intrinsic value is a term employed in axiology, the study of quality or value.

Other names for intrinsic value are terminal valueessential valueprinciple value or ultimate importance

 

Similar concepts

Intrinsic value is mainly used in ethics, but the concept is also used in philosophy, with terms that essentially may refer to the same concept.

 

 

 

 

 

Credits : WikiPedia